Int. Rev. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. Family Med., 2018, XXIV/1: 047-052 Maximize

Int. Rev. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. Family Med., 2018, XXIV/1: 047-052

Title: Osteoporosis as a cause of spinal fractures 

Authors: Rybarczyk M, Baranowski P, Baranowska A, Białowąs W, Płusa T, Konieczny R, Albarazi 

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Osteoporosis as a cause of spinal fractures

Rybarczyk M1, Baranowski P1, Baranowska A1, Białowąs W1, Płusa T2, Konieczny R1, Albarazi F1.

1Department of Neuroothopedy, Mazowian Rehabilitation Center „STOCER” Konstancin-Jeziorna, Poland; 2Medical Faculty of Łazarski University in Warsaw, Poland

Int Rev Allergol Clin Immunol Family Med, 2018; Vol. 24, No. 1, 047

The number of people affected by osteoporosis increases significantly with the aging of societies. The disease causes a decrease in bone mass and weakening of the bone structure, which increases the risk of fractures. During the osteoporotic process, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show a decrease in the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts while increasing the transformation towards the fat cell (adipocyte). It is further disclosed that the disturbance of the balance between osteoblasts forming bones and osteoclasts resorbing bone mass causes autoantibodies, which may suggest that osteoporosis may be a form of autoimmune disease. Treatment of patients with osteoporotic changes should be related to the severity of osteopenia symptoms and fractures. The risk of osteoporotic fracture is 22% for men, and for women over 50, ca. 40%, of which 32% refers to spine fractures, 15% fractures of the proximal femur and 16% risk of fractures of the wrist. In operative treatment of osteoporotic fractures of the spine vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are used, and in some cases, an operative method of stabilizing the spine with special pedicle screws with cement applied to the stems through the canal in the screw. The prognosis for the healing of spinal fractures is good because broken vertebrae generally do not get mixed up and neurological complications are rare.

Key words: osteoporosis, fractures, treatment