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Pol. Merkur. Lek (Pol. Med. J.), 2019, XLVII/278: 052-059 Maximize

Pol. Merkur. Lek (Pol. Med. J.), 2019, XLVII/278: 052-059

Title: Evaluation of renal lesions in children with tuberous sclerosis – summary of the first year of follow-up program 

Authors: Skrzypczyk P, Wojciechowska B, Szydło A, Jóźwiak S, Brzewski M, Bombiński P, Jakimów-Kostrzewa A, Dziedzic-Jankowska K, Antonowicz-Zawiślak A, Strzelecka J, Bieniaś B, Pukajło-Marczyk A, Pańczyk-Tomaszewska M. 

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Evaluation of renal lesions in children with tuberous sclerosis – summary of the first year of follow-up program


Skrzypczyk P1, Wojciechowska B2, Szydło A2, Jóźwiak S3, Brzewski M4, Bombiński P4, Jakimów-Kostrzewa A4, Dziedzic-Jankowska K1, Antonowicz-Zawiślak A1, Strzelecka J3, Bieniaś B5, Pukajło-Marczyk A6, Pańczyk-Tomaszewska M1.

Medical University of Warsaw: 1Department of Pediatrics and Nephrology, 2Student Scientific Group at the Department of Pediatrics and Nephrology, 3Department of Pediatric Neurology, 4Department of Pediatric Radiology; 5Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Medical University of Lublin; 6Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Wrocław Medical University

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease that leads to formation of tumors i.e. in brain kidneys, heart, lungs, and skin.
The aim of the study
was to summarize center’s experience in the first year of program of nephrologic follow-up in patients with TSC.
Material and methods
. During 12 months 30 children with TSC (14 boys and 16 girls aged from 3 months to 17 years 11 months, mean 7.57±5.02 years) were hospitalized. Following parameters were evaluated: genetic and biochemical tests, blood pressure in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), kidney lesions in ultrasonography (30 patients) and in magnetic resonance (14 patients).
Results
. Genetic tests were performed in 6 children – in 5 TSC2 mutation was found, in one boy with TSC and numerous renal cysts only PKD1 mutation was revealed. Mean GFR was 130.81±23.23 mL/ min/1.73 m2. Four children (13.3%) had arterial hypertension. Renal lesions were found in 28 (93.3%) children: 18 patients had angiomyolipomas (AML) (mean diameter 15.4±12.5, max 38 mm), 23 patients had renal cysts (mean diameter 7.6±7.0, max 30 mm); 13 patients had AMLs and cysts. A dysplastic lesion (39x26x15 mm) in right kidney was found in one girl. Children with AML were older than remaining patients (10.08±4.55 vs. 4.25±3.50 [years], p<0.001). Children with cysts were characterized by higher systolic (p=0.017), diastolic (p=0.027) and mean (p=0.014) arterial pressure, and mean arterial pressure Z-score (p=0.025) in ABPM. Maximal kidney cyst diameter correlated positively with systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure Z-score, and diastolic blood pressure load in ABPM (r = 0.61-0.75, p = 0.033-0.005). Two children with numerous AML with diameter >30 mm were treated with sirolimus.
Conclusions
. Because of common focal lesions in kidneys children with TSC should be kept under regular nephrologic follow-up. Presence of large renal cysts may predispose children with TSC to arterial hypertension.

Key words: tuberous sclerosis complex, angiomyolipoma, renal cyst, blood pressure, children

Pol Med J, 2019; XLVII (278); 52–59