Pol. Merkur. Lek (Pol. Med. J.), 2019, XLVII/279: 106-110 Maximize

Pol. Merkur. Lek (Pol. Med. J.), 2019, XLVII/279: 106-110

Title: The growing resistance of bacterial strains to antibiotics 

Authors: Płusa T, Konieczny R, Baranowska A,Szymczak Z. 

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The growing resistance of bacterial strains to antibiotics

Płusa T1, Konieczny R2, Baranowska J2, Szymczak Z2.

1Medical Faculty of Łazarski University, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Neurorthopedics, Mazovian Center of Rehabilitation „STOCER”, Konstancin-Jeziorna, Poland

Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibiotics made it possible to divide this phenomenon into natural and acquired resistance. The natural resistance of the bacteria is related to the lack of antibiotic ability to penetrate into the interior of the bacteria and limit the ability of penetration through the cell wall, as well as the poor affinity of the drug for the receptor or the lack of such a receptor. The acquired bacterial resistance is related to the changes occurring within the resistance genes and their rapid transfer, in which plasmids participate. The single- and multistage mutations of TEM (temoneira), SHV (sulfhydryl variable) and CTX-M (cefotaximase) lead to ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) resistance. The main mechanisms responsible for shaping bacterial resistance to antibiotics are intracellular transformations determining internal resistance, acquisition of resistance in the process of mutation or transfer of horizontal resistance genes, and adaptive resistance, which is defined as a transient increase in resistance due to gene induction by the antibiotic itself, e.g. as a result of interaction with an antibiotic. Observed increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is associated with their abuse without reasonable indications and with extensive use in veterinary and food industry. In Europe, about 25,000 people die every year due to antibiotic-resistant infections, which involves costs – about 1.5 billion euros a year.

Key words: antibiotics, resistance, mechanisms, causes

Pol Med J, 2019; XLVII (279); 106–110