Pol. Merkur. Lek (Pol. Med. J.), 2019, XLVII/281: 197-202 Maximize

Pol. Merkur. Lek (Pol. Med. J.), 2019, XLVII/281: 197-202

Title: The importance of biofilm in the context of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics 

Author: Płusa T. 

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The importance of biofilm in the context of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics

Płusa T.

Medical Faculty of the Lazarski University in Warsaw

Biofilm is a form of bacterial life in extreme environmental conditions. The known structure and functions of biofilm indicate that it is one of the most widespread and most successful life forms on earth. The quorum sensing (QS) system plays a key role in biofilm because it is a mechanism by which bacteria regulate the gene expression profile according to the size of the microbial population, causing the formation of different forms of biofilm. The QS includes the auto-inducer-1 (AI- 1) system, which uses N-acyl-homoserine lactones as a signaling factor in the formation of biofilm by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the auto-inducer-2 (AI-2) system identified as furanosyl borate diester present in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) have a natural antibacterial effect, which are produced by eukaryocytes and prokaryocytes, and have the ability to form pores in the bacterial cell membrane or interfere with its function. On the other hand, biofilm degrading enzymes – DNase I, alpha-amylase and dispersin B – reduce the weight of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and the number of cells in the biofilm. Natural compounds that inhibit the formation of bacterial biofilm have been distinguished, so-called QS inhibitors (QSI) and which „quench” active process (QSQ). In turn, genetic diversification of microorganisms in biofilm is largely responsible for shaping antibiotic resistance. The combined use of antibiotics with nanoparticles seems to be the most promising therapeutic option for bacterial biofilm. Silver nanoparticles with citrate in combination with aztreonam have been shown to have significant biofilm-destroying efficacy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and selenium nanoparticles used together with ampicillin, oxacillin and penicillin in 94% inhibited and interrupted the MRSA (methicillin-resistent) biofilm. Research on biofilm control is very advanced and will soon be subject to clinical evaluation.

Key words: biofilm, natural QS inhibitors, antibiotics, bacterial resistance

Pol Med J, 2019; XLVII (281); 197–202