International Review of Medical Practice, 2019, XXV/4: 143-150 Maximize

International Review of Medical Practice, 2019, XXV/4: 143-150

Title: The place of immune system cells in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis 

Author: Wojdas A. 

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The place of immune system cells in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis

Wojdas A.

Department of Otolaryngology, Military Institute of Aviation Medicine, Warsaw, Poland

International Review of Medical Practice, 2019; Vol. 25, No. 4, 143

The course of the inflammatory process depends on the activity of the cells of the immune system. The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis indicates the involvement of bacterial and viral as well as allergic factors that can stimulate the onset of symptoms and significantly affect the course of the disease. More than half of the lymphocytes of the immune system inhabit the mucous membranes associated with lymphatic tissue (MALT). The MALT structure is formed by – NALT (nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue), BALT (bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue), GALT (gutassociated lymphoid tissue), CALT (conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue), LDALT (lacrimal duct-associated), LALT (larynxassociated) and SALT (salivary duct-associated lymphoid tissue). The main task of MALT is the synthesis of secretory form of IgA and participation in tolerance phenomena CD4 + T cells (inductionsupport) with IL-2 receptor receptor co-expression – CD25 + and with cytoplasmic expression of receptors for IL-4 and IL-5, play a central role in regulatory mechanisms both the cellular and humoral components of the immune system. Subdivisions of thymusdependent, helper CD4 + lymphocytes are identified, which are defined as Th1 cells (producing IL-2 and IFNγ and as Th2 cells (producing IL-4 and IL-10). CD8 + T cells are mainly cytotoxic and may enter in interaction with virtually all nucleated host cells expressing endogenous antigens, while Tregs cells are characterized by the presence of specific receptors such as CTLA- 4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4), GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor) or LAG- 3 (lymphocyte activation gene-3) The mechanisms described above are present in chronic rhinosinusitis and create the clinical picture.

Key words: chronic inflammation, T lymphocytes, NALT