International Review of Medical Practice, 2021, XXVII/1: 013-017 Maximize

International Review of Medical Practice, 2021, XXVII/1: 013-017

Title: Spinal cord injuries 

Authors: Baranowski P, Baranowska A, Białowąs W, Rybarczyk M, Płusa T. 


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Spinal cord injuries

Baranowski P1, Baranowska A1, Białowąs W1, Rybarczyk M1, Płusa T2.

1Department of Neuroorthopedics, Mazovian Rehabilitation Center STOCER, Konstancin-Jeziorna, Poland; 2Faculty of Medicine of the Lazarski University, Warsaw, Poland

International Review of Medical Practice, 2021; Vol. 27, No. 1, 013

The syndrome of spinal cord injury (SCI) is caused by trauma of the spine, fracture or dislocation which results in neural structures compression. Every year about 350,000 people in the world suffer from more or less damage to the spinal cord. Injuries of the spinal column are categorized by mechanism of injury and/or by instability. Unrecognized instability after trauma may be a potential cause of delayed spinal cord injury. Clinical picture of spinal cord injury depends on the place and extent of its damage. Transverse spinal cord injury model is usually the result of a sudden factor – trauma, hemorrhage, progressive spinal softening, tumor rupture, or intense inflammation. Conus medullaris syndrome is a sacral cord injury. Compression and crushing of the spinal cord are connected with excessive compression of the spine from the bone structures of the spine or epidural hematoma. This factors create the clinical syndromes. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord injury, which is characterized by predominant upper extremity weakness, and less severe sensory and bladder dysfunction. Anterior cord syndrome also referred to as ventral cord syndrome or anterior spinal artery syndrome is caused by infarction of the ventral two-thirds of the spinal cord. Half-spinal cord injury is a rare spinal cord injury known as Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS). Horse tail (cauda equina) syndrome involves demage of the lumbosacral nerve roots in the spinal canal.

Key words: spinal cord, injury, factors, classification