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International Review of Medical Practice, 2021, XXVII/1: 040-047 Maximize

International Review of Medical Practice, 2021, XXVII/1: 040-047

Title: Body composition and hydration level in high-performance athletes

Authors: Okręglicka K, Świtakowska A, Wiśniewska K, Nitsch-Osuch A. 

Version: FULL ARTICLE IN POLISH

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06-01-2021

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SUMMARY IN POLISH & ENGLISH. FULL ARTICLE ONLY IN ENGLISH.

Body composition and hydration level in high-performance athlet
es

Okręglicka K1, Świtakowska A2, Wiśniewska K1, Nitsch-Osuch A1.

Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland: 1Department of Social Medicine and Public Health; 2Student Research Group for Hygiene and Prevention at the Department of Social Medicine and Public Health

International Review of Medical Practice, 2021; Vol. 27, No. 1, 040

Body composition analysis is crucial in competitive sports. Hydration level represents a key parameter which can influence performance capacity of high-performance athletes.
The aim of
the study was to assess fluid intake with reference to hydration level and to analyze differences in the body composition of professional swimmers, football players and handball players.
Material and methods
. The study was conducted among 42 athletes and it involved body composition analysis with reference to body fat level, muscle mass, glycogen level, general water level and water distribution in particular parts of the body. Furthermore, a three-day current record of consumed fluids was analyzed.
Results
. Significant differences were found between the height of athletes representing particular sport disciplines. Handball players were significantly taller (190.6±3.4cm) than swimmers (183.8±4.2cm; p<0,0258) and football players (182,0±2,3cm; p<0,0056). Muscle mass of the participants to the study varied according to the sport discipline. A significant difference was found between muscle mass of football players (36,70±2,76 kg) and handball players (40,31±4,73 kg) (p<0,0154). Swimmers were characterized by a significantly lower muscle mass (35,27±3,52 kg) than handball players (p<0,001). Glycogen level in the body was determined with the use of bioelectric impedance and it was significantly higher in handball players (732,43±82,07g) than swimmers (678,93±65,81g) (p<0,0438).
Conclusions
. Proper hydration level can contribute to high performance capacity of athletes. However, no relationship between fluid intake and the level of water in the body was determined, and therefore the fuel intake is not an independent factor influencing hydration.

Key words: athletes, body composition, anthropometry, fluid intake, hydration status, muscle mass