Pol. Merkur. Lek (Pol. Med. J.), 2016, XL/238: 211-215 Maximize

Pol. Merkur. Lek (Pol. Med. J.), 2016, XL/238: 211-215

Title: Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours 

Authors:  Kozłowski P, Starosławska E, Szumiło J, Jankiewicz M, Kozłowska M, Burdan F. 

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Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours

Kozłowski P1,2, Starosławska E1, Szumiło J3, Jankiewicz M1, Kozłowska M4, Burdan F1,2.

1St Johns’ Oncology Center in Lublin; Medical University of Lublin, Poland: 2Humana Anatomy Department; 3Department of Clinical Pathomorphology; 4Department of Neurology

Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment.

Key words: testicular tumour, seminoma, non-seminomatous tumour, epidemiology, risk factor

Pol Med J, 2016; XL (238); 211–215